|Conformation and dynamics of the weak polyelectrolyte, poly(acrylic acid), as a function of ionization via vibrational spectroscopy : comparison to theory - Walczak, Wanda J., 1965-|
Keywords: Polyelectrolytes; Ionization; Raman spectroscopy
|An infrared spectrometer utilizing a spin flip raman laser, IR frequency synthesis techniques, and COb2s laser frequency standards (Volume NBS Technical Note 670) - Wells, J. S. (Joseph S.), 1930-; Petersen, F. R.; Streit, P. D. Goldan; Sadowski, C. M.|
Keywords: Lasers; Infrared spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy
|Growth of Mushroom‐like Carbon Nanotubes and Nanodiamond Directly on Hydroxyapatite via MPECVD|
Mushroom‐like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and sphericalnanodiamond, 3 nm in diameter, have been successfullygrown directly on hydroxyapatite (HA) via microwaveplasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) forthe first time. The diameter of the CNTs was found to be notuniform while its length was about 500 nm. The HA partiallytransformed to the β‐tricalcium phosphate throughdehydroxylation. In all samples, the intensity of the G‐bandwas higher than that of the D‐band, which indicates th...
Keywords: CNTs; Nanodiamond; Hydroxyapatite; MPECVD; Raman Spectroscopy
|Development of new preparation methods for surface enhanced raman active substrates - Sutherland, William Scott|
Keywords: Raman effect, Surface enhanced; Raman spectroscopy; Sulfonamides; Colloidal silver
|Description of the thermotropic behavior of membrane bilayers in terms of raman spectral parameters - a 2-state model (Volume 92) - Kirchhoff, W.H.|
Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards
Keywords: logistic function; membrane; phase transition; Raman spectroscopy; two-state model
|Thermal Stress Measurement and Modeling in Plasma Spray Deposits Used for Attaching Fiber Optic Sensors|
Plasma spray deposits of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were tested as an attachment method for fiber optic strainsensors in power generation applications. Thermal stresses affect the adhesion lifetimes of the deposits, and therefore the lifetimesof the sensors when used in a variable temperature environment. The deposits were tested for elastic strain using Ramanspectroscopy and modeled with COMSOL® Multiphysics®...
Keywords: Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia; Plasma Spray Coating; Raman Spectroscopy
|Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on metallic colloids for the purpose of trace analysis - Angebranndt, Martin John|
Keywords: Raman effect, Surface enhanced; Raman spectroscopy; Trace analysis; Colloids
|Space shuttle: Verification of booster transition characteristics for transonic and supersonic Mach numbers (M equals 0.6 - 5.0) - Carter, W. V.|
The results of the booster verification wind tunnel test are presented. These tests were conducted in a 14 x 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel utilizing a .0035 scale model. The nominal Mach numbers tested were 0.6, 0.9, 0.95, 1.0, 1.05, 1.20, 1.50, 2.0, 2.74, 3.00, 4.50 and 5.0. The angle of attack range was 5 to 40 deg. The yaw data was obtained over a range of -10 to 10 deg at fixed angles of attack of 0, 6, 15, 25, and 30 deg...
Keywords: LASERS; SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS; SYSTEMS ENGINEERING; EMISSION SPECTRA; METALLURGY; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
|Raman measurements of temperature during continuous wave laser-induced heating of silicon - Lo, Ho Wai.|
This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy.
Keywords: Silicon--Thermal properties; Temperature measurements; Raman spectroscopy; Lasers--Industrial applications
|Pixel Paradise - NON|
PixelVision, Inc., has developed a series of integrated imaging engines capable of high-resolution image capture at dynamic speeds. This technology was used originally at Jet Propulsion Laboratory in a series of imaging engines for a NASA mission to Pluto. By producing this integrated package, Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) technology has been made accessible to a wide range of users.
Keywords: SOL-GEL PROCESSES; URINE; WATER; COATING; BLOOD; PHARMACOLOGY; PHYSIOLOGY; CONTAMINANTS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SOLVENTS; SPECTROMETERS
|A Liquefier for Mars Surface Propellant Production - Salerno, Lou J.|
NASA's planned Mars exploration missions will require that cryogenic propellants be manufactured on the surface. The present scenario calls for oxygen and methane gases to he produced using the carbon dioxide atmosphere plus seed hydrogen brought from Earth. Gases will require liquefaction for both storage on the Martian surface and for use in the ascent vehicle. The planned liquefaction rates range from 12.6 g/hr of oxygen for the 2003 robotic mission to 2500 g/hr for the later human missions...
Keywords: RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; INJECTORS; EXPERIMENT DESIGN; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
|Raman measurements of dye-laser-annealed, ion implanted GaAs - Yao, Huade.|
This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy.
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; Annealing of crystals; Gallium arsenide semiconductors; Dye lasers; Ion implantation
|Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project - Lin, Ruei-Fong|
The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C a...
Keywords: RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; ABNORMALITIES; SILICON CARBIDES; FIBER COMPOSITES; MATRIX MATERIALS; SILICON; LASERS; IMAGING TECHNIQUES; DEGRADATION; COATINGS
|Daytime Cloud Property Retrievals Over the Arctic from Multispectral MODIS Data - Spangenberg, Douglas A.|
Improving climate model predictions over Earth's polar regions requires a complete understanding of polar clouds properties. Passive satellite remote sensing techniques can be used to retrieve macro and microphysical properties of polar cloud systems. However, over the Arctic, there is minimal contrast between clouds and the background snow surface observed in satellite data, especially for visible wavelengths...
Keywords: CARBON NANOTUBES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; CATALYSTS; NANOSTRUCTURE GROWTH; VAPOR DEPOSITION; NANOTECHNOLOGY; INJECTION; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; THERMOGRAVIMETRY
|UCN production with a single crystal of ortho-deuterium (Volume 110) - Moriai, A.|
Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
Keywords: ortho-deuterium; Bragg scattering; catalyser; cold neutron beam; ultracold neutrons; ortho-para conversion; Raman spectroscopy; time-of-flight
|NASA and Mt. St. Helens - NON|
NASA technology played an important part in the Mt. St. Helen's aftermath, not only in scientific studies, but also in disaster assessment and relief operations. A particular problem was maintaining communications with rescue ground crews and evacuation helicopters operating in the smoke-obscured area. The key element came from NASA's ATS-3 satellite, which is capable of beaming to and receiving signals from small, simple antennas on the ground, and a communications jeep developed by the Air For...
Keywords: EXPERIMENT DESIGN; SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION RAMJET ENGINES; TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; THERMAL MAPPING; COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; FLOW DISTRIBUTION; HYDROGEN FUELS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
|VEGF165 Stimulates Vessel Density and Vessel Diameter Differently in Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis - Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia|
Vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) stimulated angiogenesis in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) by vessel expansion from the capillary network. However, lymphangiogenesis was stimulated by the filopodial guidance of tip cells located on blind-ended lymphatic sprouts. As quantified by fractal/generational branching analysis using the computer code VESGEN, vascular density increased maximally at low VEGF concentrations, and vascular diameter increased most at high VEGF c...
Keywords: FUEL INJECTION; TEST FACILITIES; THERMAL MAPPING; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; NITROGEN; HYDROGEN; OXYGEN; SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION; COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; CONCENTRATION (COMPOSITION)
|Spectroscopic Tricks - Leopold May|
Leopold May Spectroscopic Tricks Adam Hilger/Plenum Press 1967 Acrobat 7 Pdf 22.0 Mb. Scanned by artmisa using Canon DR2580C + flatbed option
Keywords: Physics; Chemistry; Emission Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Raman Spectroscopy; UV Visible Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; X-Ray Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy
|Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment - Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.|
The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide...
Keywords: RADAR MEASUREMENT; MIXING RATIOS; EXTINCTION; AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT; OPTICAL RADAR; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; NARROWBAND; FILTERS; WATER VAPOR; CARBON DIOXIDE; RANDOM ERRORS
|Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power - Raffaelle, Ryne P.|
There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented...
Keywords: MARS EXPLORATION; METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS; PLANETARY GEOLOGY; GEOMORPHOLOGY; MINERAL DEPOSITS; MARS MISSIONS; MARS SURFACE; MARS LANDING SITES; BALLOON-BORNE INSTRUMENTS; BALLOON SOUNDING; GROUND PENETRATING RADAR; INFRARED SPECTROMETERS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
|Development and Operations of the Astrophysics Data System - Murray, Stephen S|
The ADS was represented at the AAS meeting with 3 poster papers and a demonstration booth. We have setup a mirror site of the Vizier data base system at the CDS. functionality of the ADC at Goddard. This will replace the Preparations for the APS and LPSC meetings in March started. We will have demonstrations at both meetings. Preparations for the APS and LPSC meetings in March continued. We will have demonstrations at both meetings...
Keywords: RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; ENTHALPY; OXYGEN; WATER VAPOR; NITROGEN; TEMPERATURE PROFILES; SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION; TEST FACILITIES; HYDROGEN FUELS; GAS MIXTURES; COHERENT SCATTERING; COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; AIR FLOW; FUEL INJECTION
|Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing - Kory, Carol L|
The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional ...
Keywords: COMBUSTION PRODUCTS; JET ENGINES; THERMISTORS; THERMOCOUPLES; EXHAUST GASES; GAS TEMPERATURE; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; SOUND DETECTING AND RANGING; ERRORS; EXHAUST EMISSION; GAS TURBINES
|Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials - Selvaduray, Guna|
Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of mate...
Keywords: BRECCIA; OLIVINE; LASER BEAMS; HOLOGRAPHY; FORSTERITE; CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES; LUNAR EXPLORATION; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; PYROXENES; LUNAR ROCKS; LUNAR SOIL; MINERALOGY; OPTICAL FIBERS
|Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Stardust Sample Return Capsule with Coupled Radiation and Ablation - Gupta, Roop N|
An aerothermodynamic analysis of the forebody aeroshell of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule is carried out by using the axisymmetric viscous shock-layer equations with and without fully coupled radiation and ablation. Formulation of the viscous shock-layer equations with shoulder radius as the length scale and implementation of the Vigneron pressure condition allow resolution of the flowfield over the shoulder...
Keywords: THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELS; DIFFUSION; AFTERBURNING; COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY; NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION; COMBUSTION PHYSICS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; ROCKET-BASED COMBINED-CYCLE ENGINES; SPACECRAFT PROPULSION; STATIC PRESSURE
|Modern Instruments in Chemical Analysis - Frank M. Biffen & William Seaman|
Frank M. Biffen & William Seaman Modern Instruments in Chemical Analysis McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc. 1956 Acrobat 7 Pdf 67.9 Mb. Scanned by artmisa using Canon DR2580C + flatbed option
Keywords: Physics; Chemistry; Emission Spectroscopy; Flame Photometry; UV Visible Absorbtion Spectrophotometry; Infrared Spectrophotometry; Raman Spectroscopy; Mass Spectrometry; Radioactivity; Electroanalysis; Polarography; Potentiometric Analysis; Coulometric Analysis; Conductometric Analysis
|NADE Journal, Vol. 24, Summer 2002. - National Association of Document Examiners|
This professional and scholarly journal is currently one of the three published by associations of document examiners in the United States. The other two journals are issued by Association of Forensic Document Examiners and American Society of Questioned Document Examiners.
Keywords: Handwriting Biomechanics; Handwriting Identification; Emily Will; Annotated Bibliography; Jacqueline A. Joseph; Graphic Maturity; Katherine Koppenhaver; Raman Spectroscopy; Mike Clayboum; Computers in Document Examination; Indented Writing; J. Wright Leonard; Faxed Documents; Linda James; Video Spectral Comparator; Kay Micklitz; Phyllis Cook
|Dust Devils on Mars: Effects of Surface Roughness on Particle Threshold - Neakrase, Lynn D.|
Dust devils have been proposed as effective mechanisms for lofting large quantities of dust into the martian atmosphere. Previous work showed that vortices lift dust more easily than simple boundary layer winds. The aim of this study is to determine experimentally the effects of non-erodable roughness elements on vortex particle threshold through laboratory simulations of natural surfaces. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
Keywords: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; GAS FLOW; GAS-GAS INTERACTIONS; IMAGING TECHNIQUES; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SCHLIEREN PHOTOGRAPHY; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY; HYDROGEN; INJECTORS; OXYGEN; REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES; ROCKET ENGINES; COAXIAL FLOW; COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY; COST REDUCTION
|Chronology of KSC and KSC Related Events for 1999 - Liston, Elaine E|
This document is intended to serve as a record of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) events and is a reference source for historians and other researchers. Arrangement is by day and month and individual articles are attributed to published sources. Materials were researched and described by the KSC Library Archivist for KSC Library Services Contractor InDyne, Inc.
Keywords: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; FLUID MECHANICS; PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION; WALL PRESSURE; COMBUSTION PHYSICS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; EJECTORS; ROCKET-BASED COMBINED-CYCLE ENGINES; SPACECRAFT PROPULSION; ALGORITHMS; COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; STATIC PRESSURE; FLOW DISTRIBUTION
|Buckling Load Calculations of the Isotropic Shell A-8 Using a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach - Arbocz, Johann|
As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a test series of 7 isotropic shells carried out by Aristocrat and Babcock at Caltech is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called 'high fidelity analysis', where the uncertainties involved in a design are...
Keywords: JET ENGINES; TURBULENCE MODELS; APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS); STRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS); RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; EXPERIMENT DESIGN; COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; FLOW DISTRIBUTION; DATA ACQUISITION; EVALUATION; NOZZLE FLOW; MIXING LAYERS (FLUIDS); SUPERSONIC JET FLOW; COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; DESIGN ANALYSIS
|The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators - Reichert, B. A.|
An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M...
Keywords: HYDROGEN OXYGEN ENGINES; SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIOS; INCIDENT RADIATION; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; MONOCHROMATORS; BROADBAND; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES; TIME MEASUREMENT; RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT; ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION; EXCIMER LASERS; INELASTIC SCATTERING; COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; RAMAN SPECTRA; FLAMES; NASA PROGRAMS; UNIVERSITY PROGRAM; POLARIZATION CHARACTERISTICS; FLUORESCENCE
|Collisional Removal of O2 (c(sup 1) Sigma(sup-)(sub u), nu=9) by O2, N2, and He - Copeland, Richard A.|
The collisional removal Of 02 molecules in selected vibrational levels of the c state is studied using a two-laser double-resonance technique. The output of the first laser excites the 02 to nu = 9 or 10 of the c Sigma - state, and the ultraviolet output of the second laser monitors specific rovibrational levels via resonance-enhanced ionization. The temporal evolution of the c Sigma u state vibrational level is observed by scanning the time delay between the two pulsed lasers...
Keywords: DIAMOND FILMS; COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SLIDING FRICTION; DIAMONDS; X RAY SPECTROSCOPY; WEAR RESISTANCE; VAPOR DEPOSITION; ULTRAHIGH VACUUM; TRIBOLOGY; AMORPHOUS MATERIALS; BACKSCATTERING
|Nonlinear Transient Thermal Analysis by the Force-Derivative Method - Balakrishnan, Narayani V.|
High-speed vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter must withstand severe aerodynamic heating during reentry through the atmosphere. The Shuttle skin and substructure are constructed primarily of aluminum, which must be protected during reentry with a thermal protection system (TPS) from being overheated beyond the allowable temperature limit, so that the structural integrity is maintained for subsequent flights...
Keywords: OPTICAL MEASUREMENT; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE; FLAMES; LIGHT SCATTERING; ALUMINUM OXIDES; PROPELLANTS; DROP SIZE; PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION; VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION; X-33 REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE; FLOW DISTRIBUTION; GAS-GAS INTERACTIONS; LIQUID OXYGEN; HYDROGEN; NONINTRUSIVE MEASUREMENT; THRUST CHAMBERS; VELOCITY MEASUREMENT; INJECTORS; COMBUSTIBLE FLOW; COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETERS
|Structures and Mechanical Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamonds - Miyoshi, Kazuhis|
A revolution in diamond technology is in progress as the low-pressure process becomes an industrial reality. It will soon be possible to take advantage of the demanding properties of diamond to develop a myriad of new applications, particularly for self-lubricating, wear, and superhard coatings. The production of large diamond films or sheets at low cost, a distinct possibility in the not-too-distant future, may drastically change tribology technology, particularly solid lubricants and lubricati...
Keywords: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; X-33 REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE; THRUST CHAMBERS; ALUMINUM OXIDES; CHARACTERIZATION; COMBUSTIBLE FLOW; CRITICAL PRESSURE; DROP SIZE; FLAMES; HYDROGEN; GAS-GAS INTERACTIONS; LASER OUTPUTS; LIGHT SCATTERING; DYNAMIC MODELS; FLOW DISTRIBUTION; INJECTORS; LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETERS; LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE; NONINTRUSIVE MEASUREMENT; LIQUID OXYGEN
|A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume - Ripple, William J.|
Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) High Resolution Visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands (HRV band 3, r...
Keywords: COLD FLOW TESTS; SOLID STATE LASERS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEST FIRING; TEST STANDS; CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES; COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS; FIBER OPTICS; GAS-GAS INTERACTIONS; HYDROGEN; MOLECULAR EXCITATION; COMBUSTION; OXYGEN; RAMAN SPECTRA; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIOS; STIMULATED EMISSION; TUNABLE LASERS; WATER VAPOR; COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; DYE LASERS; ENGINE TESTS; GAS TEMPERATURE; NONINTRUSIVE MEASUREMENT; POLYATOMIC MOLECULES; ROCKET ENGINES
|MIT3.014F06 - MIT OpenCourseWare|
Keywords: electron; electronic properties; magnetism; magentic properties; structure; crystal; lattice; energy; thermodynamics; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); x-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning probe microscopy (AFM; STM); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); UV/Vis; Raman spectroscopy; FTIR spectroscopy; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM); dynamic light scattering (DLS); phonon; quantum; quantum mechanics; radiation; battery; fuel cell; ferromagnetism; ferromagnetic; polymer; glass; corrosion